iTunes creates a backup every time you sync your phone with the computer.
You can access this backup in the following locations:
Windows XP: C: \Documents and Settings\Username\Application Data\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup\
Windows Vista/7: C:\Users\Username\AppData\Roaming\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup
You can use Wondershare Dr.Fone to locate the backups and extract the content. If you didn't back up, then this process is not available.
Photo Vault protects your photos with a password, so if the password is active, again, you cannot extract the photos.