There isn't a list with all the apps running on a phone because every manufacturer customizes the Android image how he pleases, but there is a way to check if you have malware installed. First thing to do is to install an anti-malware. You can use BitDefender Antivirus to scan the phone. After this procedure, go to Settings > Security > Device Administrators. If there is someone spying your phone, an app should be there with a bogus name. Uncheck it and let BitDefender remove it.