If you're using a USB cable, replace it with a new one and then download and install SpeedFan. Install the application and while the drive is connected, go to the SMART tab and select the drive with problems. If you see entries with red or yellow, then it means the hard drive has problems. You need to either replace it through warranty or buy a new one. Additionally, make sure the USB ports and drivers are installed on your computer, but since you've tested this possibility on another laptop, I can only say this is not the cause to the problem.